Islam spread there only through Muslim traders and missionaries. Those paying Jizya were subjected to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors. Note that this religion is the second largest and the fastest-growing major religion in the world. ), The Secret Science of Solving Crossword Puzzles, Racist Phrases to Remove From Your Mental Lexicon. Islam seemed more attractive in an empire run by a Muslim elite than it does today, when Islamic culture is no longer seen as a culture of power or prestige. The expansion of the Arab Empire in the years following the Prophet Muhammad’s death led to the creation of caliphates occupying a vast geographical area. Will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans (or Our Health?! In Iraq and Egypt, Muslim authorities cooperated with Christian religious leaders. Fact Check: What Power Does the President Really Have Over State Governors? Before Muslims were ready to build mosques in Syria, they accepted Christian churches as holy places and shared them with local Christians. Muslim dynasties were soon established and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, and Ajurans, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safavids in Persia, and Ottomans in Anatolia were among the largest and most powerful in the world. After the end of military operations, which involved the sacking of some monasteries and confiscation of Zoroastrian fire temples in Syria and Iraq, the early caliphate was characterized by religious tolerance, and people of all ethnicities and religions blended in public life. For the polytheistic and pagan societies, apart from the religious and spiritual reasons each individual may have had, conversion to Islam “represented the response of a tribal, pastoral population to the need for a larger framework for political and economic integration, a more stable state, and a more imaginative and encompassing moral vision to cope with the problems of a tumultuous society.” In contrast, for sedentary and often already monotheistic societies, “Islam was substituted for a Byzantine or Sassanian political identity and for a Christian, Jewish or Zoroastrian religious affiliation.” Initially, conversion was neither required nor necessarily wished for: “[The Arab conquerors] did not require the conversion as much as the subordination of non-Muslim peoples. These were, in no certain order, the ease of conversion, the political consolidation of the Islamic state and the remarkable military effectiveness of Islamic armies. The blending of Islam. Peasants, workers, and merchants paid taxes, while members of the old and new elites collected them. Muhammad dispatched raiding parties against Arabian tribes that did not accept Islam. when Muhammad advised a number of his early disciples, who were facing persecution by the pre-Islamic inhabitants of the Mecca, to seek refuge across the Red Sea in Axum. Additionally, originating with the Prophet, Islam embraced the notion of a political reality that incorporated theological principles and moral imperatives based on faith. At the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic and status advantages of the Arabs.”. In Africa it spread along three routes—across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the Sudan up to Uganda, and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. The new understanding by the religious and political leadership led in many cases to a weakening or breakdown of the social and religious structures of parallel religious communities such as Christians and Jews. “The spread of Islam is not a new phenomenon. Zoroastrians were made to pay an extra tax called Jizya; if they failed, they were killed, enslaved, or imprisoned. Some non-Muslim populations did experience persecution, however. If anything, they were encouraged to continue living their lives as they had for centuries before. But, going back to the main idea of this article, how did Islam as a religion spread in the conquered areas? Numerous churches were repaired and new ones built during the Umayyad era. Africa was the first continent, outside of Arabia that Islam spread to in the early 7th century. One is animists and polytheists of tribal societies of the Arabian Peninsula and the Fertile crescent; the other is the monotheistic populations of the Middle Eastern agrarian and urbanized societies. This spread of Islam in Western democracies is led by the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamic groups that endeavor to maximize the spread of Sharia law and Islam in the targeted societies while minimizing detection and push-back. The objective of the conquests was of a practical nature more than anything else, as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian Peninsula. During the Abbasid Caliphate, expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law, and mysticism became more widespread, and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occurred. Festival of Sacrifice: the Past and Present of the world, notably southeast Asia to conversions new... 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