Hawthorn and Pollard showed 475 acres devoted to seed production in 1951. There are promising hybrids under private sector seed companies in India. Due to ease in manual emasculation and pollination and resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease in the hybrids, it shall be a desirable proposition to exploit the parental lines of okra, in particular those revealing high SCA in the present study for the development of hybrids. For Hybrid Seed Production of Okra, the most productive and desirable hybrid seed is obtained from the female parent when there is a perfect coincidence of stigma receptiveness and pollen viability. This means they do not require wind or insects to pollinate properly. The ease in emasculation and very high percentage of fruit setting indicates the possibilities of exploitation of hybrid vigour in okra. Anthesis commences at 6 am and continues upto 8 am. There are promising hybrids under private sector seed companies in India. Self-pollination, or more exactly almost full self-pollination, is the principle mating system found in grain crops and in many vegetables.The majority of the 50–60 main grain crops of the world are predominantly self-pollinated. the stamens make emasculation and pollination process easier. The cross-pollination is effected through hand pollination, and enough (400 m) spacing between the two parents and similar distance from fields of other okra varieties is maintained. Miller indicated yields of 1,000 to 1,500 pounds of seed per acre. in rice the anthesis at Coimbatore takes place between 7.00 to 10.00 A.M. 800+ SHARES (a) Explain the term self pollination and cross-pollination ? Okra | diseases and pests, description, uses, propagation. etc are extracted by dry method. tetraphyllus A. manihot ssp A ficulneus Abelmoschus esculentus 12. Under good and hot conditions, okra can mature just four days after flowering. View more posts. It occupies fifth position, ... pollination is not effective in okra. Fruit is a capsule. Normal practice of hand emasculation and dusting of pollen is done. Okra is predominantly a crop of tropics and subtropics. Other methods include growing only one species of vegetable or spacing them. STUDIES ON EMASCULATION AND POLLINATION TIME IN HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION OF OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULANTUS L. MOENCH). The presence of sufficient hybrid vigour is an important prerequisite for successful production of hybrid varieties. INVESTIGATIONS ON STIGMA RECEPTIVITY, POLLEN STORAGE, BUD SIZE AND POLLINATION FREQUENCY FOR HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION IN BHENDI â¦ It is usually planted in 3- to 3 1/2 foot rows, the plants about 1 foot apart in the row, after all danger of frost is past. Self pollination is the rule in groundnut. This method is commonly used method in hybrid development and hybrid seed production. With the ease in fruit set and good number of seeds per pod, okra can be well exploited for hybrid vigour. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out / Problems occur when insects bring in other types of plant pollen, such as other cultivars of okra, leading to cross-pollination. Emasculation involves the removal of stamens from bisexual flowers of the female parents in order to avoid self-pollination in these flowers.It is done before the anthers are mature. Pollination Recommendations and Practices: Self-pollinating plants, like okra, produce flowers that contain both male and female parts and are fertilized by their own pollen. Choice of the parents for a breeding programme is important to improve quantitative characters like fruit yield and its components. These inbreds are used in hybridization by hand emasculation and pollination. GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea) (2n = 40), Family – Fabaceae. Emasculation of female parent 3.collection of pollen. The degree of cross-pollination depends on several factors: the insect population, the growing season, the cultivar and competitive vegetation. Hand emasculation is done in the evening and pollination is done very early in the morning i.e., before 6 a.m. Therefore, the heterotic studies can provide the basis for â¦ The emasculation was carried out daily from 2-00 to 6-00 pm (Plate 3). Emasculation is necessarily followed by controlled pollination. Fusarium Wilt Causative agent: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. This is an often cross-pollinated crop showing 4â19% cross pollination. Okra production in california. Domesticated Species There are four known domesticated species of Abelmoschus. This video describes how to do the emasculation and pollination in rice for crossing. Each inflorescence is labelled to complete the artificial pollina-tion. This video contains details on Emasculation and Pollination in rice plant (breeding , hybridization) , You can see flowers but have dried up without producing fruit. Powdery Mildew Causative agent: Erysiphe cichoracearum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea . The single showy okra flower, as much as 2 inches across, resembles the cotton flower, with its wide corolla usually made up of five yellow to cream-colored petals. Ag. Pollinated nuts are harvested 11–12 months after pollination is completed. Using hand emasculation and pollination, commercial hybrids are developed. The emasculation and dusting can be done as per the methods outlined in tomato. Free delivery on qualified orders. In bhendi, since the flowers are large in size, hand emasculation and pollination is the best suitable method for seed production. OKRA PLANT SPECIES:- A.manihot ssp. If the anthers deposit an adequate number of pollen grains on the stigmas to fertilize all of the ovules, and outside agency is not needed to transfer the pollen. ... Hybrids are very much popular in this crop and the hybrid seed production is based on hand emasculation and hand pollination. Moses (2005)  mentioned that pollination of okra flowers done by hand and insect received seed setting around 73-84% per fruit which was higher compared to the 57% seed setting per fruit acquired from the spontaneous self - pollination using bagged flowers. The pointed angular, ribbed or round pods, 3 to 5 inches long, are made up of five to nine carpers, each carper capable of producing about 30 seeds. The male and female parents are raised in blocks at the ratio of 9:1 (Female: Male). At a planting rate of 8 pounds of seed per acre, this 475 acres should supply sufficient seed to plant 60,000 to 70,000 acres of okra.